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Islamic Banking V

Qard Hassan (Good Loan)
This is a loan extended on a goodwill basis, and the debtor is only required to repay the amount borrowed. However, the debtor may, at his or her discretion, pay an extra amount beyond the principal amount of the loan (without promising it) as a token of appreciation to the creditor. In the case that the debtor does not pay an extra amount to the creditor, this transaction is a true interest-free loan. Some Muslims consider this to be the only type of loan that does not violate the prohibition on riba, since it is the one type of loan that truly does not compensate the creditor for the time value of money

Sukuk (Islamic Bonds)
Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. However, fixed-income, interest-bearing bonds are not permissible in Islam. Hence, Sukuk are securities that comply with the Islamic law and its investment principles, which prohibit the charging or paying of interest. Financial assets that comply with the Islamic law can be classified in accordance with their tradability and non-tradability in the secondary markets.
Conservative estimates suggest that over US$500 billion of assets are managed according to Islamic investment principles. Such principles form part of Shariah, which is often understood to be Islamic law, but it is actually broader than this in that it also encompasses the general body of spiritual and moral obligations and duties in Islam.

Takaful (Islamic Insurance)
Takaful is an alternative form of cover that a Muslim can avail himself against the risk of loss due to misfortunes. Takaful is based on the idea that what is uncertain with respect to an individual may cease to be uncertain with respect to a very large number of similar individuals. Insurance by combining the risks of many people enables each individual to enjoy the advantage provided by the law of large numbers.

In modern business, one of the ways to reduce the risk of loss due to misfortunes is through insurance which spreads the risk among many people. The concept of insurance where resources are pooled to help the needy does not contradict Shariah. However, conventional insurance involves the elements of uncertainty (Al-gharar) in the contract of insurance, gambling (Al-maisir) as the consequences of the presence of uncertainty and interest (Al-riba) in the investment activities of the conventional insurance companies. These factors (uncertainty, gambling and interest) contravene the rules of Shariah. It is generally accepted by Muslim jurists that the operation of conventional insurance does not conform to the rules and requirements of Shariah.

Wadiah (Safekeeping)
In Wadiah, a bank is deemed as a keeper and trustee of funds. A person deposits funds in the bank and the bank guarantees refund of the entire amount of the deposit, or any part of the outstanding amount, when the depositor demands it. The depositor, at the bank's discretion, may be rewarded with a hibah (gift) as a form of appreciation for the use of funds by the bank. In this case, the bank compensates depositors for the time-value of their money (i.e. pays interest) but refers to it as a gift because it does not officially guarantee payment of the gift.

Wakalah (Agency)
This occurs when a person appoints a representative to undertake transactions on his/her behalf, similar to a power of attorney.

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5 comments:

khalid jarrar said...

"pay an extra amount beyond the principal amount of the loan (without promising it)"

are you pretty sure about this?!

becasue i know that 7adeeth says

ايما قرض جر نفعا فهو ربا

any kind of naf3, even if was6a or gift or anything. it all is considered riba, as long as its a "naf3" that was casued becasue of the qar`9.

double check for us please?:)

thank you and jazak Allah kher:)

Ali said...

Hello Khalid,

The whole sentence was "the debtor may, at his or her discretion, pay an extra amount beyond the principal amount of the loan (without promising it) as a token of appreciation to the creditor. In the case that the debtor does not pay an extra amount to the creditor, this transaction is a true interest-free loan." the creditor has not demanded any extra money, which means no inetrest involved. it is a pure gift.

khalid jarrar said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
khalid jarrar said...

regardless :)

even a gift in that regard is riba.

any kind of naf3 that happened soleley because of a qar`9, is a riba,

ايما قرض جر نفعا فهو ربا

recheck! :)

i am thankful for your posts and replies to my comments, i am sorry for being relate and not replying to your replies, i am going through rough times :) will get back to reply to your other comments later inshalla, thank you very much :)

Ali said...

Khalid,

Please bare with me, I'm trying to get in contact with a respected Islamic Economist to clear things up.